ATP/ITP metabolism


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ATP/ITP metabolism

ATP plays the important role in a metabolism. This compound is a universal energy source for all biochemical processes occurring in live systems. Knowledge of Inosine metabolism has led to advances in immunotherapy in recent decades.

ATP is often used as a phosphate source, e.g., in the reaction with Neopterin diphosphate (NDP) that results in formation of ADP and Neopterin-3'-triphosphate (NTP), as well as in the reaction with Inosine diphosphate (IDP) in which Inosine triphosphate (ITP) is formed. These reactions are catalyzed by similar enzymes, Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK complex) [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], Non-metastatic cells 4, protein expressed in (NDPK D (mitochondrial)) [6], [7], [8], Non-metastatic cells 3, protein expressed in (NDPK C) [7], [9], [10], Nucleoside non-metastatic cells 6, protein expressed in (nucleoside-diphosphate kinase) (NDPK 6) [8], [11], Non-metastatic cells 7, protein expressed in (nucleoside-diphosphate kinase) (NDPK 7) [8] and non-metastatic cells 2, protein (NM23B) expressed in, pseudogene 1 (NDPK 8) [12].

Hydrolysis of ATP to ADP proceeds in two ways and catalyzed by specific groups of enzymes. The first group consists of Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 (ENTPD2-alpha) [13], [14], Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENP1) [15], [16], [17], [18], Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 (ENP3) [19], [20], [21], Acylphosphatase 1, erythrocyte (common) type (ACYP1) [22], [23], Acylphosphatase 2, muscle type (ACYP2) [22], [23], Acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant (PPA5) [24], [25], Epoxide hydrolase 2, cytoplasmic (EPHX2) [26], and Alkaline phosphatase, placental (Regan isozyme) (ALPP) [26]. The second group consists of Acid phosphatase 2, lysosomal (PPAL) [27], [28], [29], Acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant (PPA5) [30], [31], [32], [33], and Acid phosphatase, prostate (PPAP) [34], [35], [36], [37]. Second group also catalyzes further hydrolysis of ADP to AMP and AMP to release Adenosine.

There are two processes that lead to ITP hydrolysis. The first is a reaction catalyzed by Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENP1) [15], [18], [19], Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 (ENP3) [19], [20], [21], and Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 6 (putative function) (ENTPD6) [38], [39]. It results in formation of IDP. These enzymes also participate in the following hydrolysis of IDP to Inosine monophosphate (IMP). And in the second case ITP is hydrolyzed directly to IMP by the action Inosine triphosphatase (nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatase) (ITPA) [40], [41], [42], [43].

Yet another process leading to formation of ADP is the reaction of ATP with AMP catalyzed by Adenylate kinase 5 (AK5) [44], Adenylate kinase 1 (AK1) [44], [45], Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) [44], [45], Adenylate kinase 3-like 1 (AK3) [44], [46], TAF9 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 32kDa (KAD6) [47], [48], and Adenylate kinase 7 (KAD7) [49], [50].

ADP can participate in reaction of formation of 2 '-deoxy-ADP (dADP). This reaction is catalyzed by Ribonucleotide reductase. This enzyme is involved in one more reaction of formation of 2 '-deoxy-IDP (dIDP) from IDP [51], [52], [53], [54], [55]. dADP and dIDP take part in the dATP/dITP metabolism.

AMP can be hydrolyzed to IMP via two pathways. The first is a direct hydrolysis catalyzed by AMP deaminase [56], [57], Adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 (isoform L) AMP deaminase 2 [58], [59], [60], Adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 (isoform M) AMP deaminase 1 [61], [62], [63], [64], and Adenosine monophosphate deaminase (isoform E) (AMD3) [65], [66], [67], [68]. The second is represented by a chain of consecutive reactions: formation of Adenylo-succinate catalyzed by Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) [69], [70], [71], [72], [73] followed by formation of IMP in the presence of Adenylosuccinate synthase (ADSS) [74], [75], [76], [77] and Adenylosuccinate synthase like 1 (ADSSL1) [74], [75], [76], [77], [78]. IMP also takes part in IMP biosynthesis and GTP-XTP metabolism.

AMP can directly form Adenine, this reaction occurs in the presence of Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) [79], [80], [81]. Similar reaction proceeds for IMP from Hypoxanthine under the action of Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT) [82], [83], [84], [85], [86]. Adenine and Hypoxanthine participate in other processes, e.g., dATP/dITP metabolism and in GTP-XTP metabolism.

Nucleoside phosphorylase (PNPH) catalyzes the formation of Adenine from Adenosine [87], [88], [89] and Inosine from Hypoxanthine [87], [88], [89], [90], [91], [92]. Inosine can also be produced as a result of hydrolysis of Adenosine by Adenosine deaminase (ADA) [93], [94], [95], Adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific (ADAR1) [96], Adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B1 (RED1 homolog rat) (ADAR2) [96] Adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B2 (RED2 homolog rat) (ADAR3) [96].


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Target Details

Click on a target from the pathway image to view related information.