RalA regulation pathway
v-Ral simian leukemia viral oncogene homolog A (RalA)
belongs to a family of small GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) called monomeric
G-proteins. The Ral subfamily consists of RalA and RalB
RalA is localized at the cytoplasmic surface of the
plasma membrane. It is a target of posttranslational modification via attachment of lipid
moieties, such as geranyl, catalyzed by Geranylgeranyltransferase type I
(GGTase-I). These posttranslational modifications affect
localization and biological activity of RalA .
Like other G-proteins, RalA is found in two
interconvertible forms, GDP-bound inactive and GTP-bound active. Conversion from the GDP-
to GTP-bound form is catalyzed by Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Activity of
GEF is often regulated by an upstream signal. GEF first interacts with the GDP-bound form
and releases bound GDP. As a result, a binary complex of a small G protein and GEF is
formed. GEF in this complex is subsequently replaced by GTP resulting in formation of the
GTP-bound small G protein .
Three GEFs are known to interact with RalA. These are
RalGDS, RGL, and
RalGEF2. Two of them, RalGDS
and RGL, have been found to be v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma
viral oncogene homolog (H-RAS) protein effectors , . They also bind RAP1A member of RAS oncogene family
(RAP-1A), but biological role of these interactions is
unclear , .
RalGDS activity is affected by Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe
receptor (FPR). RalGDS is
localized to the cytosol and remains inactive in a complex formed with Beta-arrestins
(Beta-arrestin 1 and Beta-arrestin
2). In response to FPR stimulation,
Beta-arrestin/ RallGDS protein complexes dissociate, and
RalGDS translocates with Beta-arrestin from the cytosol to
the plasma membrane. This leads to activation of the RalA
effector pathway that affects cytoskeletal rearrangements .
Conversion from GTP-bound form to GDP-bound form is a result of intrinsic GTPase
activity of RalA.
This activity is slow, and proteins called
GTPase activated proteins (GAPs) are known to stimulate it. The GAP proteins for
RalA were characterized and partially purified. However,
their genes have not been cloned yet .
Aurora kinase (Aurora-A)
phosphorylates and activites RalA . Ral GTPases may also be involved in calcium/calmodulin-mediated intracellular
signaling pathways where RalA is activated by
Ca(2+) via binding with
Effectors for RalA RalBP1, Phospholipase D 1
(PLD1), Filamin, and components
of the exocyst implicate participation RalA in various cell
RalBP1 contains a RhoGAP homology domain that exhibits
the GAP activity for Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1
(Rac1) and Cell division cycle 42
(CDC42) proteins, thereby inhibiting
Rac1/CDC42 involved in
cytoskeleton remodeling . On the other hand, actin-binding protein
Filamin is an effector protein of
RalA. Filamin crosslinks Actin
filaments into orthogonal networks and participates in the anchoring of membrane proteins
to the Actin cytoskeleton .
RalA via RalBP1 interacts
with the Mu-subunit of the heterotetrameric Coat assembly protein complex 2
(AP complex 2 medium (mu) chain)
and RALBP1 associated Eps domain containing 1 and 2
(REPS1 and REPS2) proteins.
These proteins are involved in endocytosis and cell motility , , .
Exocyst components Sec6,
Sec6, Sec15B are direct
effectors of RalA , , .
RalBP1 also interacts with the stress-responsive Heat
shock factor 1 (HSF1) and regulates its activity .
Another RalA protein effector,
PLD1, is implicated in vesicle trafficking.
PLD1 directly associates with
RalA. However, RalA has no
effect on the activity of the PLD1. RalA is required for the
stimulation of PLD1 activity by the ADP-ribosylation factor
1 (ARF1) .
Thus the RalA signaling appears to regulate vesicle
trafficking, cytoskeleton organization, gene expression, and cell transformation.
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