PIP3 signaling in cardiac myocytes
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) can be activated in
cardiac myocytes by the receptors with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, such as
insulin receptor (INSR), growth factor receptors
(IGF1 receptor and HGF
receptor), and by the G protein-coupled receptors
INSR and IGF1 receptor
engagement triggers receptor activation and autophosphorylation. The activated receptor
can then phosphorylate several intracellular protein substrates, most notably the insulin
receptor substrate (IRS1-4) proteins.
Tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS1 can recruit and activate the
downstream effector, PI3K, which generates
phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) using
inositol-containing phospholipids resident in the plasma membrane as substrates. IRS
proteins also recruit adaptors Shc and
The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is responsible for
negatively regulating INSR signaling by dephosphorylating
the phosphotyrosine residues of this receptor .
Hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGF receptor)
activation induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of GAB1 and
its association with PI3K via the recruitment of its regulatory subunit
(PI3KR class 1A) that stimulates its catalytic subunit
(PI3KC class 1A) .
Activated adaptors Shc and
Grb-2 recruit exchange factor
SOS that activates H-RAS . H-RAS directly stimulates PI3K catalytic subunit
(PI3KC class 1A) .
PI3K converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate
(PI(4,5)P2) to PIP3 . PIP3 is the second messenger that activates
diverse signal cascades, including PDK and
AKT pathway , .
Phosphatase PTEN acts as a negative regulator for the
PI3K/AKT signaling pathway,
converting PI(3,4,5)P3 into
AKT and PDK phosphorylate
diverse proteins that mediate various insulin- and growth factor-induced cellular
responses such as glycogen synthesis, protein synthesis, cell cycle initiation, and
promotion of cell survival by regulation of apoptosis factors such as
BAD and Bcl-x(L) , , .
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