Regulation of degradation of wt-CFTR
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
(CFTR) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter
superfamily. It acts in the apical part of the epithelial cells as a plasma-membrane
cyclic AMP-activated chloride anion, bicarbonate anion and glutathione channel , , . Cell surface expression of the
CFTR is a highly regulated intracellular process , .
Ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation is the key pathway in
wt-CFTR regulation , , , .
Two ubiquitin ligase complexes mark wt-CFTR for
degradation - ER ubiquitin ligase complex and cytosolic ubiquitin ligase complex. The
first complex (ER membrane-associated ubiquitin ligase complex) contains the E3 RMA1
(RNF5), the E2 Ubc6e (UNE2J1),
and Derlin-1. Derlin-1 interacts with nonubiquitylated
CFTR and serves to retain CFTR
in the ER membrane , .
The second complex (cytosolic ubiquitin ligase complex) contains E3
CHIP, UBCH5a and acts
in Hsc70 , .
Cochaperone HspBP1 is an inhibitor of
CHIP. HspBP1 attenuates the
ubiquitin ligase activity of CHIP when complexed with
Hsc70. As a consequence,
HspBP1 interferes with the CHIP-induced degradation of
immature forms and may modulate the function of the
Hsc70/CHIP complex .
Csp (DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member
5), blocks ER exit of wt-CFTR.
Additionally, Csp associates with
CHIP and facilitates degradation of immature
wt-CFTR (Schmidt, B. unpublished data, The 21st
Annual North American CF conference Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, California,
October 3-6, 2007}
The ubiquitylated wt-CFTR is transported through the
Sec61 trimeric complex back to the cytosol, escorted by the
beta subunit of Sec61 .
VCP/p97, a Type II AAA ATPase component of the
retrotranslocation machinery, forms a complex with substrate-recruiting cofactors
Ufd1/Npl4. VCP binds polyubiquinated
wt-CFTR while Ufd1/Npl4
interacts to the ubiquitin chains on the substrate , .
VCP activity may be regulated by
In situations where 26S proteasome are compromised or
overwhelmed, ubiquitinated misfolded wt-CFTR is transported
to a perinuclear location near the microtubule-organizing center to form aggresomes
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